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Thursday, August 27, 2015

Basics of the Information Technology

This Post Writer: Eng. Md. Nadimul Islam
Asst. Network Engineer (Technical Operation) Multi-sourcing Ltd.

Information technology (IT) is a technology which uses computers to gather, process, store, protect, and transfer information. Today, it is common to use the term Information and communications technology (ICT) because it is unimaginable to work on a computer which is not connected to the network. 

The computer consists of: 
  • Hardware – physical computer parts, palpable and visible  
  • software – set of commands that are "understandable" to the computer; instructions to its palpable parts, giving orders what to do 

Basic principle of computers: Data enters the computer through one or more input devices. The computer then processes the data and transmits the resulting data to output devices. Output devices can be human interfaces such as a screen or another electronic device such as a storage device or computer network.

The system unit consists of the following components: 

 Motherboard - MBO o a computer "backbone" responsible for communication between components and transmission of information 

• Central Processing Unit - CPU o functions: command execution, data transmission, computer function control o basic characteristics: • speed (in Mega Hertz (MHz), Giga Hertz (GHz)) • amount of memory (Cache in Bytes) 

 Random Access Memory - RAM o a memory container for programs that are currently running and data that is being processed o basic characteristics: • speed (in MHz, GHz) • capacity (in Bytes) • data rate class (DDR SDRAM, SDR SDRAM) 

 permanent memory: o Hard Disk Drive - HDD - device (memory) used for permanent data storage • data is stored on magnetic platters; electromagnetic heads are used for reading and recording data with the exception of the newest disk types called Solid State Drive (SSD) • basic characteristics:

 disk platters rotation speed (in RPM) 
 capacity (in GB) 
 connection interface (IDE, SATA) 
o Floppy Disk Drive - FDD 
o optical disks - CD, DVD

 Graphics processing units (GPU) o function: processing and displaying image on the monitor o it consists of a graphics processor and its own working RAM memory o basic characteristics: 
 • Type of graphics processing units (ATI Radeon, Nvidia GeForce, or other) 
 • RAM size
 • connection interface/slot type 
 Ports:
 o Parallel Port 
 o Serial Port 
 o Universal Serial Bus (USB)

Input and output devices 
 Input devices:  Output devices: o keyboard o scanner o touchpad o mouse o trackball o joystick o microphone o stylus o camera (web, digital) 
 Output devices: o monitor o projector o printer o plotter o speakers o earphones 
 Device that is both input and output: touchscreen

Common devices and media for storing and transferring data: 
 hard disk  USB flash drive  diskette and ZIP diskette  CD and DVD discs  memory cards  internal hard disk  external hard disk  network disk drive  online storage device 
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